international environmental information

ieinfo.net

CCC's master environmental timeline

Once upon a time, this was very much a work in progress. Hopefully, it will be again soon, but for the past ten years I have not done much with this. Please note that a lot has happened in the last ten years...so don't believe everything you don't read.

     

1760

     Kew Botanical Garden


1778

     Bogd Khan Mountain Reserve, Mongolia


1836

     Mt Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts


1842

     Manchester Association for the Prevention of Smoke, UK


1864

     U.S. Government cedes Yosemite to California

     George Perkins Marsh, Man and Nature: Or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action


1866

     Ernst Haeckel coins "ecology"


1867

     French-UK Convention to conserve oysters by prohibiting fishing outside certain dates (signed)


1868

     French-UK Convention to conserve oysters by prohibiting fishing outside certain dates (enters into force)  

     Convention Establishing Uniform Regulations Concerning Fishing in the Rhine between Constance and Basle

     German foresters and farmers call for international bird protection


1872

     Yellowstone National Park (U.S.)


1875

     Edward Suess coins "biosphere" (Der Entstehung der Alpen)


1878

     18 white-tailed deer translocated from NY to VT


1882

     "Overfishing Convention" for North Sea


1891

     U.S.-UK "Modus Vivendi" agreement relating to Bering Sea Fur Seal Fisheries


1892


Pacific Fur Seal Arbitration Treaty

1893

Pacific Fur SealArbitration Decision


1895

Friends of Nature Movement (est. Vienna: now Friends of Nature International)

New York Zoological Society (now WCS)


1900

London Convention for the Protection of Wild Animals, Birds and Fish in Africa

Convention between the Riverine States of the Rhine Respecting Regulations Governing the Transport of Corrosive and Poisonous Substances


1902

European Convention Concerning the Conservation of Birds Useful to Agriculture

Danube convention on fisheries conservation

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea


1903

Society for the Protection of Wild Fauna of the Empire (UK)


1909

International Congress for the Portection of Nature


1911

Convention for the Preservation and Protection of Fur Seals (US, UK, Russia)


1913

Lawrence J Henderson, The Fitness of the Environment Life as an improbable and unexplained phenomenon

Consultative Committee for the International Protection of Nature


1916

Canadian-American Treaty for the Protection of Migratory Birds


1919

International Labor Organization


1920

US Senate resolution on conservation


1922

International Committee (Council) for Bird Protection (Preservation)


1923

International Congress on the Protection of Flora, Fauna, and Natural Sites and Monuments;

Convention for Preservation of Halibut Fishery of North Pacific Ocean


1926

BI Vernadsky, Biosfera Scientific examination of "biosphere" Noosphere defined as transformation of the biosphere by humanity


1927

International Congress for the Study and Protection of Birds


1931

Second International Congress for the Protection of Nature; Convention for Regulation of Whaling

IJC awarded US damages in Trail Smelter Case (agricultural damage in Washington state from SO2 emissions from Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, Trail, BC, Canada)


1932

ESA Committee for the Study of Plant and Animal Communities report advocated a comprehensive U.S. nature sanctuary system

Glacier-Waterton International Peace Park established


1933

London Convention Relative to the Preservation of Flora and Fauna in Their Natural State


1935

Wright, George and Ben Thompson. 1935. Fauna of the National Parks of the U.S. published

US/Canada Convention submitting to arbitration


1936

U.S.-Mexico Treaty for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals


1937

International Convention on the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW)


1938

Morley Roberts, Biopolitics; Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Le Phénomène Humain


1940

Washington Convention of Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere (Sands: Visionary

agreement that has never been implemented)


1942

Washington Convention entered into force


1945

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)

International Monetary Fund

Food and Agriculture Organization


1946

UN International Law Commission;  UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

International Convention for the Regulation of  Whaling

June 30-July 7, Basel, Switzerland International Conference for the Protection of Nature


1947

ECOSOC resolution convening 1949 UNCCUR

International Conference for the Protection of Nature (June 28-July 3, Brunnen, Switzerland)

IUPN is informally established


1948

Inter-American Conference on Conservation of Renewable Natural Resources (Denver) convened to implement WHC;

ICRW Entered into force;

Conference for the Establishment of the International Union for the Protection of Nature (September 30-October 7, Fontainebleau, France

International Union for the Protection of Nature established (October 5)

IUPN's 1st General Assembly (October 5-7)

IUPN Commission on Education is established (renamed Commission on Education and Communication in 1990)

Commission on Nomenclature is established (subsumed in 1970's by Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas)

International Maritime Organization


1949

Council of Europe

UN Scientific Conference on the Conservation and Utilisation of Resources

Tropical Tuna Convention; August 22-29, Lake Success, USA First International Technical Conference on the Protection of Nature (within UNSCCUR) establishes IUPN as a going concern


1950

International Convention for the Protection of Birds; October 18-23: IUPN 2nd General Assembly, Brussels, Belgium (Survival Service Committee established)

Ecological Society of America attempted to implement 1932 nature sanctuary system


1951

IUPN publishes The Position of Nature Protection in the World; IUPN Commission on Public Information (dissolves in 1958)


1952

First IUPN Bulletin published (January)

3rd IUCN General Assembly (September 3-9, Caracas, Venezuela)

North Pacific Fisheries Convention signed


1953

3rd International Conference for the Protection of Fauna and Flora of Africa (October 26-31, Bukavu, Zaire)


1954

4th IUCN General Assembly (August 25-September 3, Copenhagen, Denmark); IUCN Commission on Ecology (becomes Commission on Ecosystem Management in 1996)

IMO Oil Pollution Convention


1955

IUPN's first logo selected (known as the "flaming artichoke”)

IUPN's first field mission: information is gathered about the status of various threatened mammalian species of the Middle East and South Asia (January), undertaken by Lee Talbot, author of the resulting 'A Look at Threatened Species' report

IUPN and the International Office for the Protection of Nature (IOPN) merge.

IUPN acquires IOPN's "van Tienhoven Library"

International Air Pollution Congress, NYC

Harlod Blum, Time's Arrow and Evolution (warned of humanity's inability to control its destructive activities)


1956

June 20-28, Edinburgh, Scotland. 5th General Assembly.

IUPN becomes IUCN, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

Survival Service Committee becomes an approved commission. (renamed Species Survival Commission1981)

August 4, Salzburg, Austria. The IUCN-sponsored International Youth Federation for Environmental Studies and Conservation is founded.

Man's role in changing the face of the earth

IUPN changes name to International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)


1957

International Atomic Energy Agency (est.)

International Geophysical Year (July-July '58)

Interim Convention on Conservation of North Pacific Fur Seals

Scientific Council on Oceanic Resources


1958

September 11-19. Athens, Greece. 6th General Assembly. Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas is established (renamed World Commission on Protected Areas in 1996).

Survival Service Commission publishes first list of 26 endangered mammalian species

Scientific Council on Antarctic Research

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas


1959

Charles Darwin Foundation is created in Brussels, to save the fauna and flora of the Galapagos Islands, under the joint auspices of IUCN and UNESCO.

Antartic Treaty: Antarctica established as the world's first international scientific reserve


1960

Philip Wagner, The Human Use of the Earth (states that there are environental limits)

Swedish scientists link transport of sulfur with lake acidification (1950-60)

Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy


1961

UNESCO Division for Natural Resources

World Food Program

WWF founded

International Clean Air Congress, London


1962

UNGA Resolution on relationship between economic development and environmental protection

Rachel Carson, Silent Spring

IMO Oil Pollution Convention amended


1963

GE sells first US reactor to Jersey Central Power and Light

IUCN General Assembly (Nairobi)

Organization for African Unity


1965

US Northeast Blackout

UN Development Program established

UNESCO Natural Resources Research Committee adopts world conference on environment

UNESCO Natural Resources Research Committee

ICC releases Environmental Guidelines


1966

ECOSOC invites UNESCO & FAO to prepare report on "Conservatioonservation and Rational Use of the Environment”

International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna


1967

Swedish scientist Svante Oden publishes article which prompts Swedish govt to limit sulfur content of fuel oil in


1968

UN Industrial Development Organization

Torrey Canyon oil spill affects UK and France


1968

Swedish Ambassador to UN Astrom proposes Stockholm Conference to ECOSOC (July)

Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere; UNGA endorses Stockholm Conference Proposal (December)

ECOSOC adopts RF Dasmann's report

Hardin: Tragedy of the Commons

African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources


1969

UN Fund for Population Activities; Scientific Council on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE)

IMO Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties

IMO International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

South East Atlantic Convention (fisheries)


1970

Alvin Toffler, Future Shock

Congress bans supersonic transport issue (SSTs)


1971

Man and the Biosphere Programme

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance


1972

UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference) est.

Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention) est.

UN Environment Program est.

Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter;  Oslo Convention for Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from ships and Aircraft


1973

Convention on the Trade of Endangered Species (CITES)

Convention for Prevention of Pollution by Ships

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources in the Baltic Sea and the Belts


1974

OECD issues several recommendations on the environment (including PPP)

Molina and Rowland, "Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoro-methanes: Chlorine atom catalized destruction of ozone" appears in Nature

Paris convention for Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources


1975

World Heritage Convention entered into force

UNEP Governi Council 3rd Session decided that ocean environment would be one of its concentration areas

UNEP sponsored Mediteranean Action Plan (MAP)

UNESCO/UNEP begin Program for Env Education

CITES & Ramsar enter into force

US-Mexico Joint Committee for the Conservation of Wild Flora and Fauna

US (Russel Train) calls attention to CFC/ozone problem to the NATO Committee on the Challenge of  Modern Society

Brezhnev Proposals at Helsinki CSCE conference

IMO Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties enters into force

IMO International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage enters into force


1976

UNEP calls for meeting on protecting SOD

NAS concludes CFC's affect SOD; calls for regulation

Barcelona Framework Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution

UNEP establishes International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals

OECD Guidelines for MNEs

1977

UN Conference on Desertification; Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

UNEP experts meeting produces World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer: recommends establishment of Coordinating Committee on the Ozone Layer (CCOL); adopted by UNEP Governing Council

Ozone ammendment to US CAA

UNEP Environment Coordination Board terminated


1978

Amoco Cadiz oil spill

UNEP Principles on Conservation and Harmonious Utilization of Natural Resources Shared by Two or More States

International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

US bans nonessential uses of CFC aerosols;  International conference (Germany) on SOD

UNESCO report on "indicators of the quality of life and environmental quality”

MARPOL Protocol

Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage enters into force


1979

James Lovelock: Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth

Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) signed

First World Climate Conference (Geneva) warns of climate change

Berne Convention on the Conservation of Wildlife and Natural Habitats;  Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals


1980

UNEP GC calls for reduction in use and capacity of CFCs 11+12

UN Decade on Drinking Water Supply (1980s)

World Conservation Strategy; Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)


1981

UNEP GC extablishes Working Group to elaborate convention for protection from SOD

UNEP Env Law Experts Meeting (Uruguay) include SOD among top priorities (adopted by UNEP GC in 1982)


1982

Working Group begins negotiations in Stockholm

NAS/NRC report on C+E of SOD

1968-1982: Stalemate in European talks

German policy makes a reversal based on Waldsterben research by Ulrich Join Scandinavians in seeking Sox reductions

EC Directive on Large Combustion Plants seeks low-sulfur power stations in long term

CCAMLR entered into force; IWC votes in favour of a moratorium on commercial whaling to be phased in by 1986;  Berne Convention entered into force; UNGA World Charter for Nature

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (Section XII concerns the environment)


1983

Bonn Convention entered into force; International Tropical Timber Organization; International Tropical Timber Association

Working Groups advance cooperative science EMEP grows to sophisticated monitoring network and center of understanding

LRTAP Convention enters into force


1984

• LRTAP: Protocol on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP)

• NAS/NRC report on SOD


1985

Helsinki protocol to LRTAP

Cairo Guidelines and Principles for the Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes Conference of climate specialists (Austria) reaches consensus on the seriousness of GCC

1982-85: Working Group drafts Convention emphasizing research, monitoring and data exchange, with control protocols to be negotiated separately

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Calls for 1987 protocol

British Antartica Survey publishes data (collected since 1960s) on AOH

Reagan submits ViennaConvention to Senate for ratification


1986

The Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy argues that science is too weak to justify further regulation Later in the year, the group acknowledges that substitutes could be developed within 5 years and begins to advocate limiting future CFC use

UNEP and WMO release the first comprehensive international scientific assessment on ozone depletion

US Senate ratifies Vienna Convention

Various activities under US government/international agencies International negotiations/consultations continue

NASA releases Atmospheric Ozone 1985

Chernobyl nuclear accident

Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident


1987

World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (Brundtland report)


1988

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established

G-7 Venice Summit states responsibility for environmental problems, with SOD leading the list

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer signed

1988 Canada/US/Mexico Tripartite Agreement on the Conservation of Wetlands and their Migratory Birds

IUCN adopts "World Conservation Union" as a working name; (MAB) Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves; Tropical Forestry Action Plan (FAO, UNDP, WB, IUCN, WRI)

Regional Seas Programme changes name to "Oceans and Coastal Areas" (OCA)

Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA)

NGOs motivate the 30% Club of 12 states

1985/1987 Cairo Guidelines and Principles for the Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes


1989

Declaration of Brazilia (Latin American and Caribbean states reaffirming sovereignty over resources, but willingness to cooperate on environmental issues)

8 Amazon states support (1) Amazonian Special Environmental Commission and (2) Special Commission on Indigenous Affairs

Exxon Valdez oil spill

G-7 Green Summit

Sophia Protocol on NOx

UK reverse position on acid rain and other environmental issues, partly in response to evidence on acidification in Wales

Toronto World Conference on the Changing Atmosphere calls for a World Atmosphere Fund & a 20% CO2 reduction target by 2005

UNGA Res 45/53: Protection of Global Climate for Present and Future Generations of Mankind

NASA Ozone Trends Panel reported a decline in stratospheric ozone between 1970-86 that was 2-3 times more thatn had been predicted in models used for the Montreal Protocols

DuPont announces termination of its $600 million CFC business by shortly after 2000

UNEP Hague Ozone Science Meeting

Rainforest Alliance establishes Smartwood Program

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal


1990

Business Council for Sustainable Development

Ministerial Conference on Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change (Netherlands) issues Noordwijk Declaration calling for stabilization by 2000

Helsinki Declaration: total phaseout of CFCs by 2000


1991

Protocol the the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection

First UN Security Council environmental resolution (holding Iraq liable for damages)

Global Environment Facility (reestablished 1994)

Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) calls for stabilization as a first step

Bush Policy: Sununu argues that action unwarranted in light of uncertainty about effect and costs

London meeting: Full phaseout in industrial countries of both CFCs and halons by 2000 New restrictions on methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride (Lindar Ammendments to Montreal Protocol)

Caring for the Earth Strategy for Sustainable Living

Business Charter on Sustainable Development (ICC)

Valdez Principles

Declaration of World Industry Conference on Environmental Management (WICEM II)


1992

UNGA Res 47/191: Commission on Sustainable Development

OECD Environment Policy Committee (Replaced 1972 OECD Environment Committee)

Declaration of the UN Conference on Environment and Development

First negotiating meeting on Framework convention in Washington

NASA reports that depletion was proceeding twice as fast as expected over parts of the northern hemishphere

UN Conerence on Environment and Development (UNCED, aka, the "Earth Summit")

     UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

     Convention on Biological Diversity

     Agenda 21

     Statement of Forest Principals

     Rio Declaration

NASA reports higher chlorine levels over New England than any previously seen over Antarctica
Copenhagen meeting: Industrial countries advanced phaseout date of halons to 1994 and CFCs


VOC Protocol

Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and Lakes

Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

Convention on the Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, with Protocols

Espoo Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context

UN Security Council resolution 687 (Iraq: determining that a state can be liable for env damage and depletion of natural resources resulting from unlawful use of force)

Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import Into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes Within Africa

UNECE Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents

Entry into Force of Basel Convention


1993

Commission on Sustainable Development established

Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on the Convention to Combat Desertification

International Court of Justice establishes 7 member chamber for environmental matters

Forest Stewardship Council (est.)

Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Resulting from Activities Dangerous to the Environment

Agreement to Promote Compliance with Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas


1994

Convention to Combat Desertification

UNFCCC enters into force

UNCLOS entered into force

Instrument Establishing the Global Environmental Facility

International Tropical Timber Agreement

Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions (replaces 1985 instrument)

ILC Draft Articles on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses

Convention on Nuclear Safety

Most industrial states (excluding US) agreed to ban export of hazardous wastes to poor states


1995

First Conference of Parties meeting agrees to negotiate quantitative limits by the end of 1997

Nobel Prize awarded to Rowland, Molina, and Paul Crutzen

Vienna Meeting: increased restrictions on methyl bromide and HCFCsMontreal Protocol calls for developed countries to end of production of CFCs (except for "essential uses”)

World Trade Organization established


1996

1997

Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses

Declaration by top economists that CC is serious and there are economically efficient steps that can be taken


1998

1999


2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses (1997) enters into force


2015

Paris Agreement negotiated


2016

Paris Agreement signed


Color key:

     International Environmental Law and Policy

     IOs & NGOs

     Science, Analysis, and Commentary

     Atmosphere

     Marine & Coastal

     Biodiversity & Forests

     Transboundary Conservation

     International chemicals management

     Domestic level events & milestones